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Review
A Survey on 3D Visual Tracking of Multicopters
Qiang Fu, Xiang-Yang Chen, Wei He
2019, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 707-719, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1199-2
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Abstract:
Three-dimensional (3D) visual tracking of a multicopter (where the camera is fixed while the multicopter is moving) means continuously recovering the six-degree-of-freedom pose of the multicopter relative to the camera. It can be used in many applications, such as precision terminal guidance and control algorithm validation for multicopters. However, it is difficult for many researchers to build a 3D visual tracking system for multicopters (VTSMs) by using cheap and off-the-shelf cameras. This paper firstly gives an overview of the three key technologies of a 3D VTSMs: multi-camera placement, multi-camera calibration and pose estimation for multicopters. Then, some representative 3D visual tracking systems for multicopters are introduced. Finally, the future development of the 3D VTSMs is analyzed and summarized.
Research Article
Transfer Hierarchical Attention Network for Generative Dialog System
Xiang Zhang, Qiang Yang
2019, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 720-736, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1200-0
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Abstract:
In generative dialog systems, learning representations for the dialog context is a crucial step in generating high quality responses. The dialog systems are required to capture useful and compact information from mutually dependent sentences such that the generation process can effectively attend to the central semantics. Unfortunately, existing methods may not effectively identify importance distributions for each lower position when computing an upper level feature, which may lead to the loss of information critical to the constitution of the final context representations. To address this issue, we propose a transfer learning based method named transfer hierarchical attention network (THAN). The THAN model can leverage useful prior knowledge from two related auxiliary tasks, i.e., keyword extraction and sentence entailment, to facilitate the dialog representation learning for the main dialog generation task. During the transfer process, the syntactic structure and semantic relationship from the auxiliary tasks are distilled to enhance both the word-level and sentence-level attention mechanisms for the dialog system. Empirically, extensive experiments on the Twitter Dialog Corpus and the PERSONA-CHAT dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed THAN model compared with the state-of-the-art methods.
An Advanced Analysis System for Identifying Alcoholic Brain State Through EEG Signals
Siuly Siuly, Varun Bajaj, Abdulkadir Sengur, Yanchun Zhang
2019, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 737-747, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1178-7
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Abstract:
This paper addresses an advanced analysis system for the identification of alcoholic brain states from electroencephalogram (EEG) data in an automatic way. This study introduces an optimum allocation based sampling (OAS) scheme to discover the most favourable representative data points from every single time-window of each EEG signal considering the minimal variability of the observations. Combining all representative samples of each time-window in a set, some statistical features are extracted from every set of each class. The Mann-Whitney U test is used to assess whether each of the features is significant between the two classes (e.g., alcoholic and control). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the OAS-based features, four well-known machine learning methods (decision table, support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) and logistic regression) are considered for identification of alcoholic brain state. The experimental results on the UCI KDD (i.e., UCI knowledge discovery in databases) database demonstrate that the OAS based decision table algorithm yields the highest accuracy of 99.58% with a low false alarm rate 0.40%, which is an improvement of up to 9.58% over the existing algorithms. A proposed analysis system can be used to detect alcoholism and also to determine the level of alcoholism-related changes in EEG signals.
Multi-objective Dimensional Optimization of a 3-DOF Translational PKM Considering Transmission Properties
Song Lu, Yang-Min Li, Bing-Xiao Ding
2019, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 748-760, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1184-9
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Abstract:
Multi-objective dimensional optimization of parallel kinematic manipulators (PKMs) remains a challenging and worthwhile research endeavor. This paper presents a straightforward and systematic methodology for implementing the structure optimization analysis of a 3-prismatic-universal-universal (PUU) PKM when simultaneously considering motion transmission, velocity transmission and acceleration transmission. Firstly, inspired by a planar four-bar linkage mechanism, the motion transmission index of the spatial parallel manipulator is based on transmission angle which is defined as the pressure angle amongst limbs. Then, the velocity transmission index and acceleration transmission index are derived through the corresponding kinematics model. The multi-objective dimensional optimization under specific constraints is carried out by the improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II), resulting in a set of Pareto optimal solutions. The final chosen solution shows that the manipulator with the optimized structure parameters can provide excellent motion, velocity and acceleration transmission properties.
Selection of Observation Position and Orientation in Visual Servoing with Eye-in-vehicle Configuration for Manipulator
Hong-Xuan Ma, Wei Zou, Zheng Zhu, Chi Zhang, Zhao-Bing Kang
2019, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 761-774, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1181-z
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Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a method to select the observation position in visual servoing with an eye-in-vehicle configuration for the manipulator. In traditional visual servoing, the images taken by the camera may have various problems, including being out of view, large perspective aberrance, improper projection area of object in images and so on. In this paper, we propose a method to determine the observation position to solve these problems. A mobile robot system with pan-tilt camera is designed, which calculates the observation position based on an observation and then moves there. Both simulation and experimental results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Type Synthesis and Kinematics Performance Analysis of a Class of 3T2R Parallel Mechanisms with Large Output Rotational Angles
Bing-Shan Jiang, Hai-Rong Fang, Hai-Qiang Zhang
2019, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 775-785, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1192-9
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Abstract:
Based on Lie group theory and the integration of configuration, a class of 3T2R (T denotes translation and R denotes rotation) parallel mechanisms with large output rotational angles is synthesized through a five degree of freedom single limb evolving into two five degree of freedom limbs and constraint coupling of each kinematics chain. A kind of 3T2R parallel mechanisms with large rotational angles was selected from type synthesis of 3T2R parallel mechanisms, inverse kinematics and velocity Jacobian matrix of the parallel mechanism are established. The performance indices including workspace, rotational capacity, singularity and dexterity of the parallel mechanism are analyzed. The results show that the parallel mechanism has not only large output rotational angles but also better dexterity.
An Integrated MCI Detection Framework Based on Spectral-temporal Analysis
Jiao Yin, Jinli Cao, Siuly Siuly, Hua Wang
2019, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 786-799, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1197-4
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Abstract:
Aiming to differentiate between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and elderly control subjects, this study proposes an integrated framework based on spectral-temporal analysis for the automatic analysis of resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. This framework firstly eliminates noise by employing stationary wavelet transformation (SWT). Then, a set of features is extracted through spectral-temporal analysis. Next, a new wrapper algorithm, named three-dimensional (3-D) evaluation algorithm, is proposed to derive an optimal feature subset. Finally, the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is adopted to identify MCI patients on the optimal feature subset. Decision tree and K-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithms are also used to test the effectiveness of the selected feature subset. Twenty-two subjects are involved in experiments, of which eleven persons were in an MCI condition and the rest were elderly control subjects. Extensive experiments show that our method is able to classify MCI patients and elderly control subjects automatically and effectively, with the accuracy of 96.94% achieved by the SVM classifier. Decision tree and KNN algorithms also achieved superior results based on the optimal feature subset extracted by the proposed framework. This study is conducive to timely diagnosis and intervention for MCI patients, and therefore to delaying cognitive decline and dementia onset.
A Wide Learning Approach for Interpretable Feature Recommendation for 1-D Sensor Data in IoT Analytics
Snehasis Banerjee, Tanushyam Chattopadhyay, Utpal Garain
2019, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 800-811, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1185-8
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Abstract:
This paper presents a state of the art machine learning-based approach for automation of a varied class of Internet of things (IoT) analytics problems targeted on 1-dimensional (1-D) sensor data. As feature recommendation is a major bottleneck for general IoT-based applications, this paper shows how this step can be successfully automated based on a Wide Learning architecture without sacrificing the decision-making accuracy, and thereby reducing the development time and the cost of hiring expensive resources for specific problems. Interpretation of meaningful features is another contribution of this research. Several data sets from different real-world applications are considered to realize the proof-of-concept. Results show that the interpretable feature recommendation techniques are quite effective for the problems at hand in terms of performance and drastic reduction in development time.
Robust Disturbance Rejection Based Control with Extended-state Resonant Observer for Sway Reduction in Uncertain Tower-cranes
Horacio Coral-Enriquez, Santiago Pulido-Guerrero, John Cortés-Romero
2019, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 812-827, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1179-6
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Abstract:
In this paper, the problem of load transportation and robust mitigation of payload oscillations in uncertain tower-cranes is addressed. This problem is tackled through a control scheme based on the philosophy of active-disturbance-rejection. Here, a general disturbance model built with two dominant components: polynomial and harmonic, is stated. Then, a disturbance observer is formulated through state-vector augmentation of the tower-crane model. Thus, better performance of estimations for system states and disturbances is achieved. The control law is then formulated to actively reject the disturbances but also to accommodate the closed-loop system dynamics even under system uncertainty. The proposed control schema is validated via experimentation using a small-scale tower-crane, and compared with other relevant active disturbance rejection control (ADRC)-based techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed control scheme is robust under parametric uncertainty of the system, and provides improved attenuation of payload oscillations even under system uncertainty.
Determination of Vertices and Edges in a Parametric Polytope to Analyze Root Indices of Robust Control Quality
Sergey Gayvoronskiy, Tatiana Ezangina, Ivan Khozhaev, Viktor Kazmin
2019, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 828-837, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1182-y
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Abstract:
The research deals with the methodology intended to root robust quality indices in the interval control system, the parameters of which are affinely included in the coefficients of a characteristic polynomial. To determine the root quality indices we propose to depict on the root plane not all edges of the interval parametric polytope (as the edge theorem says), but its particular vertex-edge route. In order to define this route we need to know the angle sequence at which the edge branches depart from any integrated pole on the allocation area. It is revealed that the edge branches can integrate into the route both fully or partially due to intersection with other branches. The conditions which determine the intersection of one-face edge images have been proven. It is shown that the root quality indices can be determined by its ends or by any other internal point depending on a type of edge branch. The conditions which allow determining the edge branch type have been identified. On the basis of these studies we developed the algorithm intended to construct a boundary vertex-edge route on the polytope with the interval parameters of the system. As an illustration of how the algorithm can be implemented, we determined and introduced the root indices reflecting the robust quality of the system used to stabilize the position of an underwater charging station for autonomous unmanned vehicles.
Continuous Probabilistic SLAM Solved via Iterated Conditional Modes
J. Gimenez, A. Amicarelli, J. M. Toibero, F. di Sciascio, R. Carelli
2019, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 838-850, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1186-7
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Abstract:
This article proposes a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) version with continuous probabilistic mapping (CP-SLAM), i.e., an algorithm of simultaneous localization and mapping that avoids the use of grids, and thus, does not require a discretized environment. A Markov random field (MRF) is considered to model this SLAM version with high spatial resolution maps. The mapping methodology is based on a point cloud generated by successive observations of the environment, which is kept bounded and representative by including a novel recursive subsampling method. The CP-SLAM problem is solved via iterated conditional modes (ICM), which is a classic algorithm with theoretical convergence over any MRF. The probabilistic maps are the most appropriate to represent dynamic environments, and can be easily implemented in other versions of the SLAM problem, such as the multi-robot version. Simulations and real experiments show the flexibility and excellent performance of this proposal.
Current Issue

2019 Vol.16 No.6

Table of Contents

ISSN 1476-8186

E-ISSN 1751-8520

CN 11-5350/TP

Editors-in-chief
Tieniu TAN, Chinese Academy of Sciences Guoping LIU, University of South Wales Huosheng HU, University of Essex
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