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A Comprehensive Review of Path Planning Algorithms for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
Madhusmita Panda, Bikramaditya Das, Bidyadhar Subudhi, Bibhuti Bhusan Pati
2020, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 321-352, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1204-9
The underwater path planning problem deals with finding an optimal or sub-optimal route between an origin point and a termination point in marine environments. The underwater environment is still considered as a great challenge for the path planning of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) because of its hostile and dynamic nature. The major constraints for path planning are limited data transmission capability, power and sensing technology available for underwater operations. The sea environment is subjected to a large set of challenging factors classified as atmospheric, coastal and gravitational. Based on whether the impact of these factors can be approximated or not, the underwater environment can be characterized as predictable and unpredictable respectively. The classical path planning algorithms based on artificial intelligence assume that environmental conditions are known apriori to the path planner. But the current path planning algorithms involve continual interaction with the environment considering the environment as dynamic and its effect cannot be predicted. Path planning is necessary for many applications involving AUVs. These are based upon planning safety routes with minimum energy cost and computation overheads. This review is intended to summarize various path planning strategies for AUVs on the basis of characterization of underwater environments as predictable and unpredictable. The algorithms employed in path planning of single AUV and multiple AUVs are reviewed in the light of predictable and unpredictable environments.
Research Article
The Propagation Background in Social Networks: Simulating and Modeling
Kai Li, Tong Xu, Shuai Feng, Li-Sheng Qiao, Hua-Wei Shen, Tian-Yang Lv, Xue-Qi Cheng, En-Hong Chen
2020, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 353-363, doi: 10.1007/s11633-020-1227-2
Recent years have witnessed the booming of online social network and social media platforms, which leads to a state of information explosion. Though extensive efforts have been made by publishers to struggle for the limited attention of audiences, still, only a few of information items will be received and digested. Therefore, for simulating the information propagation process, competition among propagating items should be considered, which has been largely ignored by prior works on propagation modeling. One possible reason may be that, it is almost impossible to identify the influence of propagation background from real diffusion data. To that end, in this paper, we design a comprehensive framework to simulate the propagation process with the characteristics of user behaviors and network topology. Specifically, we propose a propagation background simulating (PBS) algorithm to simulate the propagation background by using users′ behavior dynamics and out-degree. Along this line, an ICPB (independent cascade with propagation background) model is adapted to relieve the impact of propagation background by using users′ in-degree. Extensive experiments on kinds of synthetic and real networks have demonstrated the effectiveness of our methods.
HDec-POSMDPs MRS Exploration and Fire Searching Based on IoT Cloud Robotics
Ayman El Shenawy, Khalil Mohamed, Hany Harb
2020, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 364-377, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1187-6
The multi-robot systems (MRS) exploration and fire searching problem is an important application of mobile robots which require massive computation capability that exceeds the ability of traditional MRS′s. This paper propose a cloud-based hybrid decentralized partially observable semi-Markov decision process (HDec-POSMDPs) model. The proposed model is implemented for MRS exploration and fire searching application based on the Internet of things (IoT) cloud robotics framework. In this implementation the heavy and expensive computational tasks are offloaded to the cloud servers. The proposed model achieves a significant improvement in the computation burden of the whole task relative to a traditional MRS. The proposed model is applied to explore and search for fire objects in an unknown environment; using different sets of robots sizes. The preliminary evaluation of this implementation demonstrates that as the parallelism of computational instances increase the delay of new actuation commands which will be decreased, the mean time of task completion is decreased, the number of turns in the path from the start pose cells to the target cells is minimized and the energy consumption for each robot is reduced.
Research on End-force Output of 8-cable Driven Parallel Manipulator
Sen-Hao Hou, Xiao-Qiang Tang, Ling Cao, Zhi-Wei Cui, Hai-Ning Sun, Ying-Wei Yan
2020, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 378-389, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1195-6
The return capsule needs to be launched to the moon and return back to earth in the third stage of the Chinese lunar exploration project. Therefore, it is necessary to perform simulations on the ground. This paper presents an 8-cable-driven parallel manipulator to achieve end-force output in a low-gravity environment. End-force output refers to the vector sum of the external force on the end-effector. A model of end-force output is established based on a kinematics model, a dynamic model, and a force analysis of an 8-cable driven parallel manipulator. To obtain end-force output in a low-gravity environment, the cable force has to be controlled to counteract gravity. In addition, a force-position mix control strategy is proposed to proactively control the cable force according to the force optimal distribution given by the closed-form force distribution method. Furthermore, a suitable choice for an end-force output is obtained by modeling the effect of cable force on end-force output. Experimental results show that the actual cable force agrees well with the calculated force distribution, indicating that it is feasible to realize end-force output in a low gravity environment.
Item Ownership Relationship Semantic Learning Strategy for Personalized Service Robot
Hao Wu, Zhao-Wei Chen, Guo-Hui Tian, Qing Ma, Meng-Lin Jiao
2020, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 390-402, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1206-7
In order to satisfy the robotic personalized service requirements that can select exclusive items to perform inference and planning according to different service individuals, the service robots need to have the ability to independently obtain the ownership relationship between humans and their carrying items. In this work, we present a novel semantic learning strategy for item ownership. Firstly, a human-carrying-items detection network based on human posture estimation and object detection model is used. Then, the transferred convolutional neural network is used to extract the characteristics of the objects and the back-end classifier to recognize the object instance. At the same time, the face detection and recognition model are used to identify the service individual. Finally, on the basis of the former two, the active learning of ownership items is completed. The experimental results show that the proposed ownership semantic learning strategy can determine the ownership relationship of private goods accurately and efficiently. The solution of this problem can improve the intelligence level of robot life service.
Design and Analysis of a Novel Hybrid Processing Robot Mechanism
Hai-Rong Fang, Tong Zhu, Hai-Qiang Zhang, Hui Yang, Bing-Shan Jiang
2020, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 403-416, doi: 10.1007/s11633-020-1228-1
In order to satisfy the requirements of large workspace and high dexterity for processing equipment of oversized cylindrical boxes′ spherical crown surfaces in the aerospace industry, a novel serial-parallel hybrid processing robot mechanism is proposed. The degrees of freedom of the 5PUS-(2UR)PU parallel mechanism are obtained by using the screw theory. The inverse kinematics of the hybrid mechanism are analyzed and the velocity Jacobian matrix is established. Then, the constraints of the main factors influencing workspace of the mechanism are given, and the position and posture workspace are obtained. Next, the dexterity and stiffness performance of the mechanism is analyzed based on the Jacobian matrix. The virtual prototype is established, and the theoretical calculation and simulation analysis of the hybrid mechanism with arc curve as the processing trajectory are carried out by using Matlab and Adams software. The research results show that the mechanism can satisfy the requirements of large workspace and high dexterity of oversized cylindrical boxes′ spherical crown surface processing, and has feasibility and practical application value.
Controller Optimization for Multirate Systems Based on Reinforcement Learning
Zhan Li, Sheng-Ri Xue, Xing-Hu Yu, Hui-Jun Gao
2020, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 417-427, doi: 10.1007/s11633-020-1229-0
The goal of this paper is to design a model-free optimal controller for the multirate system based on reinforcement learning. Sampled-data control systems are widely used in the industrial production process and multirate sampling has attracted much attention in the study of the sampled-data control theory. In this paper, we assume the sampling periods for state variables are different from periods for system inputs. Under this condition, we can obtain an equivalent discrete-time system using the lifting technique. Then, we provide an algorithm to solve the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control problem of multirate systems with the utilization of matrix substitutions. Based on a reinforcement learning method, we use online policy iteration and off-policy algorithms to optimize the controller for multirate systems. By using the least squares method, we convert the off-policy algorithm into a model-free reinforcement learning algorithm, which only requires the input and output data of the system. Finally, we use an example to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the model-free algorithm above mentioned.
Hybrid Dynamic Neural Network and PID Control of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle Using the PSO Algorithm
Mahdi Chavoshian, Mostafa Taghizadeh, Mahmood Mazare
2020, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 428-438, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1196-5
Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM) have been recently considered as a prominent challenge regarding pneumatic actuators specifically for rehabilitation and medical applications. Since accomplishing accurate control of the PAM is comparatively complicated due to time-varying behavior, elasticity and ambiguous characteristics, a high performance and efficient control approach should be adopted. Besides of the mentioned challenges, limited course length is another predicament with the PAM control. In this regard, this paper proposes a new hybrid dynamic neural network (DNN) and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller for the position of the PAM. In order to enhance the proficiency of the controller, the problem under study is designed in the form of an optimization trend. Considering the potential of particle swarm optimization, it has been applied to optimally tune the PID-DNN parameters. To verify the performance of the proposed controller, it has been implemented on a real-time system and compared to a conventional sliding mode controller. Simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller in tracking the reference signals in the entire course of the PAM.

Low-latency Data Gathering with Reliability Guaranteeing in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

Tian-Yun Shi, Jian Li, Xin-Chun Jia, Wei Bai, Zhong-Ying Wang, Dong Zhou
2020, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 439-452, doi: 10.1007/s11633-017-1074-y

In order to achieve low-latency and high-reliability data gathering in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs), the problem of multi-channel-based data gathering with minimum latency (MCDGML), which associates with construction of data gathering trees, channel allocation, power assignment of nodes and link scheduling, is formulated as an optimization problem in this paper. Then, the optimization problem is proved to be NP-hard. To make the problem tractable, firstly, a multi-channel-based low-latency (MCLL) algorithm that constructs data gathering trees is proposed by optimizing the topology of nodes. Secondly, a maximum links scheduling (MLS) algorithm is proposed to further reduce the latency of data gathering, which ensures that the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) of all scheduled links is not less than a certain threshold to guarantee the reliability of links. In addition, considering the interruption problem of data gathering caused by dead nodes or failed links, a robust mechanism is proposed by selecting certain assistant nodes based on the defined one-hop weight. A number of simulation results show that our algorithms can achieve a lower data gathering latency than some comparable data gathering algorithms while guaranteeing the reliability of links, and a higher packet arrival rate at the sink node can be achieved when the proposed algorithms are performed with the robust mechanism.

Performance Improvement of Discrete-time Linear Control Systems Subject to Varying Sampling Rates Using the Tikhonov Regularization Method
Fernando Agustín Pazos, Anibal Zanini, Amit Bhaya
2020, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 453-463, doi: 10.1007/s11633-019-1205-8
Methods to stabilize discrete-time linear control systems subject to variable sampling rates, i.e., using state feedback controllers, are well known in the literature. Several recent works address the use of the Tikhonov regularization method, originally designed to attenuate the noise effects on ill-posed problems, with the aim of improving performance and stabilizing approximately controllable dynamical systems. Inspired by these works, we propose the use of a feedback controller designed using the Tikhonov method to regularize discrete-time linear systems subject to varying sampling rates. The goal is to minimize an error function, thus improving the performance of the closed loop system and reducing the possibility of instability. Illustrative examples show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
A Practical Approach to Representation of Real-time Building Control Applications in Simulation
Azzedine Yahiaoui
2020, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 464-478, doi: 10.1007/s11633-018-1131-1
Computer based automation and control systems are becoming increasingly important in smart sustainable buildings, often referred to as automated buildings (ABs), in order to automatically control, optimize and supervise a wide range of building performance applications over a network while minimizing energy consumption and associated green house gas emission. This technology generally refers to building automation and control systems (BACS) architecture. Instead of costly and time-consuming experiments, this paper focuses on development and design of a distributed dynamic simulation environment with the capability to represent BACS architecture in simulation by run-time coupling two or more different software tools over a network. This involves using distributed dynamic simulations as means to analyze the performance and enhance networked real-time control systems in ABs and improve the functions of real BACS technology. The application and capability of this new dynamic simulation environment are demonstrated by an experimental design, in this paper.