Volume 15, Number 3, 2018
Realizing autonomy is a hot research topic for automatic vehicles in recent years. For a long time, most of the efforts to this goal concentrate on understanding the scenes surrounding the ego-vehicle (autonomous vehicle itself). By completing lowlevel vision tasks, such as detection, tracking and segmentation of the surrounding traffic participants, e.g., pedestrian, cyclists and vehicles, the scenes can be interpreted. However, for an autonomous vehicle, low-level vision tasks are largely insufficient to give help to comprehensive scene understanding. What are and how about the past, the on-going and the future of the scene participants? This deep question actually steers the vehicles towards truly full automation, just like human beings. Based on this thoughtfulness, this paper attempts to investigate the interpretation of traffic scene in autonomous driving from an event reasoning view. To reach this goal, we study the most relevant literatures and the state-of-the-arts on scene representation, event detection and intention prediction in autonomous driving. In addition, we also discuss the open challenges and problems in this field and endeavor to provide possible solutions.
Aim at the defects of easy to fall into the local minimum point and the low convergence speed of back propagation (BP) neural network in the gesture recognition, a new method that combines the chaos algorithm with the genetic algorithm (CGA) is proposed. According to the ergodicity of chaos algorithm and global convergence of genetic algorithm, the basic idea of this paper is to encode the weights and thresholds of BP neural network and obtain a general optimal solution with genetic algorithm, and then the general optimal solution is optimized to the accurate optimal solution by adding chaotic disturbance. The optimal results of the chaotic genetic algorithm are used as the initial weights and thresholds of the BP neural network to recognize the gesture. Simulation and experimental results show that the real-time performance and accuracy of the gesture recognition are greatly improved with CGA.
Recently, orthogonal moments have become efficient tools for two-dimensional and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) image not only in pattern recognition, image vision, but also in image processing and applications engineering. Yet, there is still a major difficulty in 3D rotation invariants. In this paper, we propose new sets of invariants for 2D and 3D rotation, scaling and translation based on orthogonal radial Hahn moments. We also present theoretical mathematics to derive them. Thus, this paper introduces in the first case new 2D radial Hahn moments based on polar representation of an object by one-dimensional orthogonal discrete Hahn polynomials, and a circular function. In the second case, we present new 3D radial Hahn moments using a spherical representation of volumetric image by one-dimensional orthogonal discrete Hahn polynomials and a spherical function. Further 2D and 3D invariants are derived from the proposed 2D and 3D radial Hahn moments respectively, which appear as the third case. In order to test the proposed approach, we have resolved three issues:the image reconstruction, the invariance of rotation, scaling and translation, and the pattern recognition. The result of experiments show that the Hahn moments have done better than the Krawtchouk moments, with and without noise. Simultaneously, the mentioned reconstruction converges quickly to the original image using 2D and 3D radial Hahn moments, and the test images are clearly recognized from a set of images that are available in COIL-20 database for 2D image, and Princeton shape benchmark (PSB) database for 3D image.
Support vector machines (SVMs) are a popular class of supervised learning algorithms, and are particularly applicable to large and high-dimensional classification problems. Like most machine learning methods for data classification and information retrieval, they require manually labeled data samples in the training stage. However, manual labeling is a time consuming and errorprone task. One possible solution to this issue is to exploit the large number of unlabeled samples that are easily accessible via the internet. This paper presents a novel active learning method for text categorization. The main objective of active learning is to reduce the labeling effort, without compromising the accuracy of classification, by intelligently selecting which samples should be labeled. The proposed method selects a batch of informative samples using the posterior probabilities provided by a set of multi-class SVM classifiers, and these samples are then manually labeled by an expert. Experimental results indicate that the proposed active learning method significantly reduces the labeling effort, while simultaneously enhancing the classification accuracy.
In this paper, a new approach to stability analysis of nonlinear dynamics of an underactuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is presented. AUV is a highly nonlinear robotic system whose dynamic model includes coupled terms due to the hydrodynamic damping factors. It is difficult to analyze the stability of a nonlinear dynamical system through Routh's stability approach because it contains nonlinear dynamic parameters owing to hydrodynamic damping coefficients. It is also difficult to analyze the stability of AUVs using Lyapunov's criterion and LaSalle's invariance principle. In this paper, we proposed the extended-Routh's stability approach to verify the stability of such nonlinear dynamic systems. This extended-Routh's stability approach is much easier as compared to the other existing methods. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed stability verification of the nonlinear dynamic systems, e.g., an AUV system dynamics.
This paper models the complex simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem through a very flexible Markov random field and then solves it by using the iterated conditional modes algorithm. Markovian models allow to incorporate: any motion model; any observation model regardless of the type of sensor being chosen; prior information of the map through a map model; maps of diverse natures; sensor fusion weighted according to the accuracy. On the other hand, the iterated conditional modes algorithm is a probabilistic optimizer widely used for image processing which has not yet been used to solve the SLAM problem. This iterative solver has theoretical convergence regardless of the Markov random field chosen to model. Its initialization can be performed on-line and improved by parallel iterations whenever deemed appropriate. It can be used as a post-processing methodology if it is initialized with estimates obtained from another SLAM solver. The applied methodology can be easily implemented in other versions of the SLAM problem, such as the multi-robot version or the SLAM with dynamic environment. Simulations and real experiments show the flexibility and the excellent results of this proposal.
FastSLAM is a popular framework which uses a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter to solve the simultaneous localization and mapping problem (SLAM). However, in this framework there are two important potential limitations, the particle depletion problem and the linear approximations of the nonlinear functions. To overcome these two drawbacks, this paper proposes a new FastSLAM algorithm based on revised genetic resampling and square root unscented particle filter (SR-UPF). Double roulette wheels as the selection operator, and fast Metropolis-Hastings (MH) as the mutation operator and traditional crossover are combined to form a new resampling method. Amending the particle degeneracy and keeping the particle diversity are both taken into considerations in this method. As SR-UPF propagates the sigma points through the true nonlinearity, it decreases the linearization errors. By directly transferring the square root of the state covariance matrix, SR-UPF has better numerical stability. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can improve the diversity of particles, and perform well on estimation accuracy and consistency.
To identify systems with non-uniformly sampled input data, a recursive Bayesian identification algorithm with covariance resetting is proposed. Using estimated noise transfer function as a dynamic filter, the system with colored noise is transformed into the system with white noise. In order to improve estimates, the estimated noise variance is employed as a weighting factor in the algorithm. Meanwhile, a modified covariance resetting method is also integrated in the proposed algorithm to increase the convergence rate. A numerical example and an industrial example validate the proposed algorithm.
In this paper, we investigate a resilient control strategy for networked control systems (NCSs) subject to zero dynamic attacks which are stealthy false-data injection attacks that are designed so that they cannot be detected based on control input and measurement data. Cyber resilience represents the ability of systems or network architectures to continue providing their intended behavior during attack and recovery. When a cyber attack on the control signal of a networked control system is computed to remain undetectable from passive model-based fault detection and isolation schemes, we show that the consequence of a zero dynamic attack on the state variable of the plant is undetectable during attack but it becomes apparent after the end of the attack. A resilient linear quadratic Gaussian controller, having the ability to quickly recover the nominal behavior of the closed-loop system after the attack end, is designed by updating online the Kalman filter from information given by an active version of the generalized likelihood ratio detector.
In this paper, we will present new results on robust finite-time H∞ control for linear time-varying systems with both time-varying delay and bounded control. Delay-dependent sufficient conditions for robust finite-time stabilization and H∞ control are first established to guarantee finite-time stability of the closed-loop system via solving Riccati differential equations. Applications to finite-time H∞ control to a class of linear autonomous time-delay systems with bounded control are also discussed in this paper. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
A new extension of the conventional adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control (AFSMC) scheme, for the case of under-actuated and uncertain affine multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, is presented. In particular, the assumption for non-zero diagonal entries of the input gain matrix of the plant is relaxed. In other words, the control effect of one actuator can propagate from a subgroup of canonical state equations to the rest of equations in an indirect sense. The asymptotic stability of the proposed AFSM control method is proved using a Lyapunov-based methodology. The effectiveness of the proposed method for the case of under-actuated systems is investigated in the presence of plant uncertainties and disturbances, through simulation studies.