Volume 13, Number 3, 2016

Display Method:
Review
Cooperative Formation Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles: An Overview
Bikramaditya Das, Bidyadhar Subudhi, Bibhuti Bhusan Pati
2016, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 199-225, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1004-4
Abstract:
Formation control is a cooperative control concept in which multiple autonomous underwater mobile robots are deployed for a group motion and/or control mission. This paper presents a brief review on various cooperative search and formation control strategies for multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) based on literature reported till date. Various cooperative and formation control schemes for collecting huge amount of data based on formation regulation control and formation tracking control are discussed. To address the challenge of detecting AUV failure in the fleet, communication issues, collision and obstacle avoidance are also taken into attention. Stability analysis of the feasible formation is also presented. This paper may be intended to serve as a convenient reference for the further research on formation control of multiple underwater mobile robots.
Research Article
Minimal Gated Unit for Recurrent Neural Networks
Guo-Bing Zhou, Jianxin Wu, Chen-Lin Zhang, Zhi-Hua Zhou
2016, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 226-234, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1006-2
Abstract:
Recurrent neural networks (RNN) have been very successful in handling sequence data. However, understanding RNN and finding the best practices for RNN learning is a difficult task, partly because there are many competing and complex hidden units, such as the long short-term memory (LSTM) and the gated recurrent unit (GRU). We propose a gated unit for RNN, named as minimal gated unit (MGU), since it only contains one gate, which is a minimal design among all gated hidden units. The design of MGU benefits from evaluation results on LSTM and GRU in the literature. Experiments on various sequence data show that MGU has comparable accuracy with GRU, but has a simpler structure, fewer parameters, and faster training. Hence, MGU is suitable in RNN s applications. Its simple architecture also means that it is easier to evaluate and tune, and in principle it is easier to study MGU s properties theoretically and empirically.
Solving Markov Decision Processes with Downside Risk Adjustment
Abhijit Gosavi, Anish Parulekar
2016, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 235-245, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-1005-3
Abstract:
Markov decision processes (MDPs) and their variants are widely studied in the theory of controls for stochastic discreteevent systems driven by Markov chains. Much of the literature focusses on the risk-neutral criterion in which the expected rewards, either average or discounted, are maximized. There exists some literature on MDPs that takes risks into account. Much of this addresses the exponential utility (EU) function and mechanisms to penalize different forms of variance of the rewards. EU functions have some numerical deficiencies, while variance measures variability both above and below the mean rewards; the variability above mean rewards is usually beneficial and should not be penalized/avoided. As such, risk metrics that account for pre-specified targets (thresholds) for rewards have been considered in the literature, where the goal is to penalize the risks of revenues falling below those targets. Existing work on MDPs that takes targets into account seeks to minimize risks of this nature. Minimizing risks can lead to poor solutions where the risk is zero or near zero, but the average rewards are also rather low. In this paper, hence, we study a risk-averse criterion, in particular the so-called downside risk, which equals the probability of the revenues falling below a given target, where, in contrast to minimizing such risks, we only reduce this risk at the cost of slightly lowered average rewards. A solution where the risk is low and the average reward is quite high, although not at its maximum attainable value, is very attractive in practice. To be more specific, in our formulation, the objective function is the expected value of the rewards minus a scalar times the downside risk. In this setting, we analyze the infinite horizon MDP, the finite horizon MDP, and the infinite horizon semi-MDP (SMDP). We develop dynamic programming and reinforcement learning algorithms for the finite and infinite horizon. The algorithms are tested in numerical studies and show encouraging performance.
Piecewise Smooth Dynamical Systems Modeling Based on Putzer and Fibonacci-Horner Theorems: DC-DC Converters Case
Abdelkader Khoudiri, Kamel Guesmi, Djillali Mahi
2016, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 246-258, doi: 10.1007/s11633-014-0833-2
Abstract:
The paper deals with the problem of switched dynamical systems modeling especially in DC-DC converters case study consideration. It presents two approaches to describe accurately the behavior of this class of systems. To clarify the paper s contribution, the proposed approaches are validated through simulations and experimental results. A comparative study, between the obtained results and those of other techniques from the literature, is given to evaluate the performances of the studied approaches.
Modified Moment-based Image Watermarking Method Robust to Cropping Attack
Tian-Rui Zong, Elbadry Suzan, Xiang Yong, Nahavandi Saeid
2016, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 259-267, doi: 10.1007/s11633-015-0926-6
Abstract:
Developing a watermarking method that is robust to cropping attack is a challenging task in image watermarking. The moment-based watermarking schemes show good robustness to common signal processing attacks and some geometric attacks but are sensitive to cropping attack. In this paper, we modify the moment-based approach to deal with cropping attack. Firstly, we find the probability density function (PDF) of the pixel value distribution from the original image. Secondly, we reshape and normalize the pdf of the pixel value distribution (PPVD) to form a two dimensional image. Then, the moment invariants are calculated from the PPVD image. Since PPVD is insensitive to cropping, the proposed method is robust to cropping attack. Besides, it also has high robustness against other common attacks. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Adaptive NN Dynamic Surface Control for a Class of Uncertain Non-affine Pure-feedback Systems with Unknown Time-delay
Xiao-Qiang Li, Dan Wang, Zhu-Mu Fu
2016, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 268-276, doi: 10.1007/s11633-015-0924-8
Abstract:
Adaptive neural network (NN) dynamic surface control (DSC) is developed for a class of non-affine pure-feedback systems with unknown time-delay. The problems of "explosion of complexity" and circular construction of the practical controller in the traditional backstepping algorithm are avoided by using this controller design method. For removing the requirements on the sign of the derivative of function fi, Nussbaum control gain technique is used in control design procedure. The effects of unknown time-delays are eliminated by using appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals. Proposed control scheme guarantees that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded. Two simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the method.
Robust Self-tuning Control Based on Discrete-time Sliding Mode for Auto-regressive Mathematical Model in the Presence of Unmodelled Dynamics
Nabiha Touijer, Samira Kamoun
2016, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 277-284, doi: 10.1007/s11633-015-0921-y
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new robust self-tuning control, called the generalized minimum variance al-equivalent selftuning control (GMVSTC-al) for the linear timevarying (LTV) systems, which can be described by the discrete-time auto-regressive exogenous (ARX) mathematical model in the presence of unmodelled dynamics. The estimation of the parameters contained in this mathematical model is made on the basis of the proposed modified recursive least squares (m-RLS) parametric estimation algorithm with dead zone and forgetting factor. The stability analysis of the proposed parametric estimation algorithm m-RLS is treated on the basis of a Lyapunov function. A numerical simulation example is used to prove the performances and the effectiveness of the explicit scheme of the proposed robust self-tuning control GMVSTC-al.
Scatter Search Based Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Earliness/Tardiness Flowshop Scheduling with Uncertainty
Jia-Can Geng, Zhe Cui, Xing-Sheng Gu
2016, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 285-295, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-0964-8
Abstract:
Considering the imprecise nature of the data in real-world problems, the earliness/tardiness (E/T) flowshop scheduling problem with uncertain processing time and distinct due windows is concerned in this paper. A fuzzy scheduling model is established and then transformed into a deterministic one by employing the method of maximizing the membership function of middle value. Moreover, an effective scatter search based particle swarm optimization (SSPSO) algorithm is proposed to minimize the sum of total earliness and tardiness penalties. The proposed SSPSO algorithm incorporates the scatter search (SS) algorithm into the frame of particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and gives full play to their characteristics of fast convergence and high diversity. Besides, a differential evolution (DE) scheme is used to generate solutions in the SS. In addition, the dynamic update strategy and critical conditions are adopted to improve the performance of SSPSO. The simulation results indicate the superiority of SSPSO in terms of effectiveness and efficiency.
A Grid-based Graph Data Model for Pedestrian Route Analysis in a Micro-spatial Environment
Yi-Quan Song, Lei Niu, Long He, Rui Wang
2016, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 296-304, doi: 10.1007/s11633-016-0979-1
Abstract:
Due to limitations in geometric representation and semantic description, the current pedestrian route analysis models are inadequate. To express the geometry of geographic entities in a micro-spatial environment accurately, the concept of a grid is presented, and grid-based methods for modeling geospatial objects are described. The semantic constitution of a building environment and the methods for modeling rooms, corridors, and staircases with grid objects are described. Based on the topology relationship between grid objects, a grid-based graph for a building environment is presented, and the corresponding route algorithm for pedestrians is proposed. The main advantages of the graph model proposed in this paper are as follows: 1) consideration of both semantic and geometric information, 2) consideration of the need for accurate geometric representation of the micro-spatial environment and the efficiency of pedestrian route analysis, 3) applicability of the graph model to route analysis in both static and dynamic environments, and 4) ability of the multi-hierarchical route analysis to integrate the multiple levels of pedestrian decision characteristics, from the high to the low, to determine the optimal path.