Volume 7, Number 2, 2010
Special Issue on Maintenance and Safety Management in Process Plants (pp.137-179)
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Plant maintenance has been a discipline that has gradually evolved with the industrial revolution. For quite some time, it has been a necessary evil in production, manufacturing, and process settings. The changing business needs and industrial conditions have had various impacts on the maintenance process, particularly over the last few years. While some industries have inherent diffculties seeing what maintenance is all about, others have begun to add more flavor to the organizational maintenance practices. This article brings an overview of developments within the offshore oil and gas production sector.
Within this paper, the process of statistical safety analysis has been presented, which involves the following steps: formulation of basic principles of statistical safety analysis, initial events analysis, accident sceneries progress analysis, risk calculation, and risk calculation results analysis. On this basis, it has been concluded that the bucket wheel excavator SRs 120024/40(400kW)+VR safety criteria is the mechanism for the hoist of rotor s arrow failure modes, because in that case whole bucket wheel excavator failure would necessarily happen (excavator falling down on counterweight). Therefore, excavator units statistical safety analysis is accomplished preventively to obtain its effective maintenance management.
Opting to follow the computing-design philosophy that the best way to reduce power consumption and increase energy efficiency is to reduce waste, we propose an architecture with a very simple ready-implementation by using an NComputing device that can allow multi-users but only one computer is needed. This intuitively can save energy, space as well as cost. In this paper, we propose a simple and realistic NComputing architecture to study the energy and power-efficient consumption of desktop computer systems by using the NComputing device. We also propose new approaches to estimate the reliability of k-out-of-n systems based on the delta method. The k-out-of-n system consisting of n subsystems works if and only if at least k-of-the-n subsystems work. More specificly, we develop approaches to obtain the reliability estimation for the k-out-of-n systems which is composed of n independent and identically distributed subsystems where each subsystem (or energy-efficient usage application) can be assumed to follow a two-parameter exponential lifetime distribution function. The detailed derivations of reliability estimation of k-out-of-n systems based on the biased-corrected estimator, known as delta method, the uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimate (UMVUE) and maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) are discussed. An energy-management NComputing application is discussed to illustrate the reliability results in terms of the energy consumption usages of a computer system with quad-core, 8GB of RAM, and a GeForce 9800GX-2 graphics card to perform various complex applications. The estimated reliability values of systems based on the UMVUE and the delta method differ only slightly. Often the UMVUE of reliability for a complex system is a lot more difficult to obtain, if not impossible. The delta method seems to be a simple and better approach to obtain the reliability estimation of complex systems. The results of this study also show that, in practice, the NComputing architecture improves both energy cost saving and energy efficient living spaces.
Spherical roller bearings in railway car wheels are critical components whose failure may have catastrophic consequences. The present study aims to analyse the mechanical stability of greases and temperature of bearings as indicators for condition-based bearing maintenance. The performed case study includes nine fully-formulated commercial greases examined in the wheel bearings of five ore cars operated in northern Scandinavia. The studied ore cars travelled a distance of about 300000km during a period of three years. Small samples of the greases were taken on eight occasions to test their mechanical stability. In addition, the temperatures of the bearings were continuously recorded. After the test period, the wear, electrical damage, and corrosion of the bearings were examined. One of the findings is that the shear stress of the grease at a certain shear velocity (the certain yieldstress (CEY) value) is a good maintenance indicator and is highly dependent on the grease type. The bearing s wear, electrical damage and corrosion also depend on the grease type. However, no oxidation of the greases was identified. The paper also outlines a systematic methodology to determine an overall maintenance indicator for railway roller bearings which is based on the field measurements.
The oil and gas (OG) industry on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) leads the world in terms of the number of subsea OG installations. Ensuring the dependability of these assets is critical. Non-intrusive inspection, maintenance and repair (IMR) services are therefore needed to reduce risks. These services are planned and executed using a mono-hull offshore vessel complete with remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), a module handling system and an active heave compensated crane. Vessel time is shared between competing jobs, using a prioritized forward-looking schedule. Extension in planned job duration may have an impact on OG production, service costs and health, safety, and environmental (HSE) risks. This paper maps factors influencing the job schedule efficiency. The influence factors are identified through reviews of literature as well as interviews with experts in one of the large IMR subsea service providers active on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The findings show that the most obvious factors are weather disruption and water depth. Other factors include job complexity, job uncertainty, IMR equipment availability, as well as the mix of job complexity.
Large engineering plants (LEPs) have certain unique features that necessitate a maintenance strategy that is a combination of both time and condition based maintenance. Although this requirement is appreciated to varying degrees by asset owners, applied research leading to a systematic development of such a maintenance strategy is the need of the day. Such a strategy should also adopt a wholesome systemic approach so that the realization of the overall objectives of maintenance is maximized. E-maintenance has several potential benefits for large engineering plants. In this paper, a three pronged strategy is suggested for the successful implementation of e-maintenance for LEPs. Firstly, an integrated condition and time based maintenance framework is proposed for LEPs. Secondly, reference is drawn to models for condition and time based maintenance at systemic levels. As a part of the ab initio development of a condition monitoring system for a LEP, one of the characteristics of the condition monitoring system, namely, predictability, is discussed in detail as a sample for a systemic study. Thirdly, emphasis is laid on the information and expertise available in the domain of plant design, operation and maintenance and the same is tapped for incorporation in maintenance decision making.
The content security requirements of a radio frequency identification (RFID) based logistics-customs clearance service platform (LCCSP) are analysed in this paper. Then, both the unified identity authentication and the access control modules are designed according to those analyses. Finally, the unified identity authentication and the access control on the business level are implemented separately. In the unified identity authentication module, based on an improved Kerberos-based authentication approach, a new control transfer method is proposed to solve the sharing problem of tickets among different servers of different departments. In the access control module, the functions of access controls are divided into different granularities to make the access control management more flexible. Moreover, the access control module has significant reference value for user management in similar systems.
This paper presents a novel general method for computing optimal motions of an industrial robot manipulator (AdeptOne XL robot) in the presence of fixed and oscillating obstacles. The optimization model considers the nonlinear manipulator dynamics, actuator constraints, joint limits, and obstacle avoidance. The problem has 6 objective functions, 88 variables, and 21 constraints. Two evolutionary algorithms, namely, elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and multi-objective differential evolution (MODE), have been used for the optimization. Two methods (normalized weighting objective functions and average fitness factor) are used to select the best solution tradeofis. Two multi-objective performance measures, namely solution spread measure and ratio of non-dominated individuals, are used to evaluate the Pareto optimal fronts. Two multi-objective performance measures, namely, optimizer overhead and algorithm effort, are used to find the computational effort of the optimization algorithm. The trajectories are defined by B-spline functions. The results obtained from NSGA-II and MODE are compared and analyzed.
In this paper, the problem of the global exponential stability analysis is investigated for a class of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) with time-varying discrete and distributed delays. Due to a novel technique when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional, we establish new exponential stability criteria in terms of LMIs. It is shown that the obtained criteria can provide less conservative results than some existing ones. Numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.
In this paper, delay-dependent stability analysis and robust stabilization for uncertain singular time-delay systems are addressed. By using Jensen integral inequality, an improved delay-dependent criterion of admissibility for singular time-delay systems is proposed in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI). Our new proposed criterion is less conservative and the numerical complexity is smaller than the existing ones. Based on this criterion, a state feedback controller is designed to ensure that the uncertain singular time-delay system is admissible. Finally, three numerical examples are employed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
In this paper, robust stability of nonlinear plants represented by non-symmetric Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) hysteresis model is studied. In general, PI hysteresis model is the weighted superposition of play or stop hysteresis operators, and the slopes of the operators are considered to be the same. In order to make a hysteresis model, a modified form of non-symmetric play hysteresis operator with unknown slopes is given. The hysteresis model is described by a generalized Lipschitz operator term and a bounded parasitic term. Since the generalized Lipschitz operator is unknown, a new condition using robust right coprime factorization is proposed to guarantee robust stability of the controlled plant with the hysteresis nonlinearity. As a result, based on the proposed robust condition, a stabilized plant is obtained. A numerical example is presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
In this paper, the problem of stability analysis of discrete-time delay systems with two additive time-varying delays is considered. A new stability result is derived for a general class of delay systems which has practical application background in networked control systems . The stability criterion is expressed in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be readily solved by using standard numerical software. An illustrative example is provided to show the advantage of the proposed stability condition.
This paper proposes improved stochastic stability conditions for Markovian jump systems with interval time-varying delays. In terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), less conservative delay-range-dependent stability conditions for Markovian jump systems are proposed by constructing a different Lyapunov-Krasovskii function. The resulting criteria have advantages over some previous ones in that they involve fewer matrix variables but have less conservatism. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the efficiency and reduced conservatism of the results in this paper.
The H synchronization problem for a class of delayed chaotic systems with external disturbance is investigated. A novel delayed feedback controller is established under which the chaotic master and slave systems are synchronized with a guaranteed H performance. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a delay-dependent condition is derived and formulated in the form of linear matrix inequality (LMI). A numerical simulation is also presented to validate the effectiveness of the developed theoretical results.
In this paper, a new adaptive fuzzy backstepping control approach is developed for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown time-delay and unmeasured states. Using fuzzy logic systems to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, a fuzzy state observer is designed for estimating the unmeasured states. On the basis of the state observer and applying the backstepping technique, an adaptive fuzzy observer control approach is developed. The main features of the proposed adaptive fuzzy control approach not only guarantees that all the signals of the closed-loop system are semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded, but also contain less adaptation parameters to be updated on-line. Finally, simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
The existing third-order tracker known as -- filter has been used for target tracking and predicting for years. The filter can track the target s position and velocity, but not the acceleration. To extend its capability, a new fourth-order target tracker called --- filter is proposed. The main objective of this study was to find the optimal set of filter parameters that leads to minimum position tracking errors. The tracking errors between using the -- filter and the --- filter are compared. As a result, the new filter exhibits significant improvement in position tracking accuracy over the existing third-order filter, but at the expense of computational time in search of the optimal filter. To reduce the computational time, a simulation-based optimization technique via Taguchi method is introduced.
A variety of problems in digital circuits, computer networks, automated manufacturing plants, etc., can be modeled as min-max systems. The cycle time is an important performance metric of such systems. In this paper, we focus on the cycle time assignment of min-max systems which corresponds to the pole assignment problem in traditional linear control systems. For the min-max system with max-plus inputs and outputs, we show that the cycle time can be assigned disjointedly by a state feedback, if and only if the system is reachable. Furthermore, a necessary and sufficient condition for the cycle time to be assigned independently by a state feedback is given. The methods are constructive, and some numerical examples are given to illustrate how the methods work in practice.
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