Volume 10, Number 2, 2013
The study presented in this paper is in continuation with the paper published by the authors on parallel fuzzy proportional plus fuzzy integral plus fuzzy derivative (FP + FI + FD) controller. It addresses the stability analysis of parallel FP + FI + FD controller. The famous small gain theorem is used to study the bounded-input and bounded-output (BIBO) stability of the fuzzy controller. Sufficient BIBO-stability conditions are developed for parallel FP + FI + FD controller. FP + FI + FD controller is derived from the conventional parallel proportional plus integral plus derivative (PID) controller. The parallel FP + FI + FD controller is actually a nonlinear controller with variable gains. It shows much better set-point tracking, disturbance rejection and noise suppression for nonlinear processes as compared to conventional PID controller.
This paper deals with the synthesis of fuzzy controller applied to the induction motor with a guaranteed model reference tracking performance. First, the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is used to approximate the nonlinear system in the synchronous d-q frame rotating with field-oriented control strategy. Then, a fuzzy state feedback controller is designed to reduce the tracking error by minimizing the disturbance level. The proposed controller is based on a T-S reference model in which the desired trajectory has been specified. The inaccessible rotor flux is estimated by a T-S fuzzy observer. The developed approach for the controller design is based on the synthesis of an augmented fuzzy model which regroups the model of induction machine, fuzzy observer, and reference model. The gains of the observer and controller are obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, simulation and experimental results are given to show the performance of the observer-based tracking controller.
According to the increasing requirement of the wind energy utilization and the dynamic stability in the variable speed variable pitch wind power generation system, a linear parameter varying (LPV) system model is established and a new adaptive robust guaranteed cost controller (AGCC) is proposed in this paper. First, the uncertain parameters of the system are estimated by using the adaptive method, then the estimated uncertain parameters and robust guaranteed cost control method are used to design a state feedback controller. The controller0s feedback gain is obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints, such that the controller can meet a quadratic performance evaluation criterion. The simulation results show that we can realize the goal of maximum wind energy capture in low wind speed by the optimal torque control and constant power control in high wind speed by variable pitch control with good dynamic characteristics, robustness and the ability of suppressing disturbance.
This paper presents an observer based dynamic fuzzy logic system (DFLS) scheme for a class of unknown single-input single-output (SISO) nonlinear dynamic systems with external disturbances. The proposed approach does not need the availability of the state variables. Within this scheme, the DFLS is employed to identify the unknown nonlinear dynamic system. The control law and parameter adaptation laws of the DFLS are derived based on Lyapunov synthesis approach. The control law is robustfied in H sense to attenuate external disturbance, model uncertainties, and fuzzy approximation errors. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, it guarantees the boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system and the asymptotic convergence to zero of tracking errors. The proposed method is applied to an inverted pendulum system to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
According to the property-rights model of cognitive radio, primary users (PUs) who own the spectrum resource have the right to lease part of spectrum to secondary users (SUs) in exchange for appropriate profit. In this paper, we propose a pricing-based spectrum leasing framework between one PU and multiple SUs. In this scenario, the PU attempts to maximize its utility by setting the price of spectrum. Then, the selected SUs have the right to decide their power levels to help PU0s transmission, aiming to obtain corresponding access time. The spectrum leasing problem can be cast into a stackelberg game, where the PU plays the seller-level game and the selected SUs play the buyer-level game. Through analysis based on the backward induction, we prove that there exists a unique equilibrium in the stackelberg game with certain constraints. Numerical results show that the proposed pricing-based spectrum leasing framework is effective, and the performance of both PU and SUs is improved, compared to the traditional mechanism without cooperation.
The increasing architecture complexity of data converters makes it necessary to use behavioral models to simulate their electrical performance and to determine their relevant data features. For this purpose, a specific data converter simulation environment has been developed which allows designers to perform time-domain behavioral simulations of pipelined analog to digital converters (ADCs). All the necessary blocks of this specific simulation environment have been implemented using the popular Matlab simulink environment. The purpose of this paper is to present the behavioral models of these blocks taking into account most of the pipelined ADC non-idealities, such as sampling jitter, noise, and operational amplifier parameters (white noise, finite DC gain, finite bandwidth, slew rate, and saturation voltages). Simulations, using a 10-bit pipelined ADC as a design example, show that in addition to the limits analysis and the electrical features extraction, designers can determine the specifications of the basic blocks in order to meet the given data converter requirements.
A novel algorithm for vehicle average velocity detection through automatic and dynamic camera calibration based on dark channel in homogenous fog weather condition is presented in this paper. Camera fixed in the middle of the road should be calibrated in homogenous fog weather condition, and can be used in any weather condition. Unlike other researches in velocity calculation area, our traffic model only includes road plane and vehicles in motion. Painted lines in scene image are neglected because sometimes there are no traffic lanes, especially in un-structured traffic scene. Once calibrated, scene distance will be got and can be used to calculate vehicles average velocity. Three major steps are included in our algorithm. Firstly, current video frame is recognized to discriminate current weather condition based on area search method (ASM). If it is homogenous fog, average pixel value from top to bottom in the selected area will change in the form of edge spread function (ESF). Secondly, traffic road surface plane will be found by generating activity map created by calculating the expected value of the absolute intensity difference between two adjacent frames. Finally, scene transmission image is got by dark channel prior theory, camera0s intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are calculated based on the parameter calibration formula deduced from monocular model and scene transmission image. In this step, several key points with particular transmission value for generating necessary calculation equations on road surface are selected to calibrate the camera. Vehicles0 pixel coordinates are transformed to camera coordinates. Distance between vehicles and the camera will be calculated, and then average velocity for each vehicle is got. At the end of this paper, calibration results and vehicles velocity data for nine vehicles in different weather conditions are given. Comparison with other algorithms verifies the effectiveness of our algorithm.
An intrinsic property of software in a real-world environment is its need to evolve, which is usually accompanied by the increase of software complexity and deterioration of software quality, making software maintenance a tough problem. Refactoring is regarded as an effective way to address this problem. Many refactoring approaches at the method and class level have been proposed. But the research on software refactoring at the package level is very little. This paper presents a novel approach to refactor the package structures of object oriented software. It uses software networks to represent classes and their dependencies. It proposes a constrained community detection algorithm to obtain the optimized community structures in software networks, which also correspond to the optimized package structures. And it finally provides a list of classes as refactoring candidates by comparing the optimized package structures with the real package structures. The empirical evaluation of the proposed approach has been performed in two open source Java projects, and the benefits of our approach are illustrated in comparison with the other three approaches.
This paper investigates a sliding-mode model predictive control (MPC) algorithm with auxiliary contractive sliding vector constraint for constrained nonlinear discrete-time systems. By adding contractive constraint into the optimization problem in regular sliding-mode MPC algorithm, the value of the sliding vector is decreased to zero asymptotically, which means that the system state is driven into a vicinity of sliding surface with a certain width. Then, the system state moves along the sliding surface to the equilibrium point within the vicinity. By applying the proposed algorithm, the stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. A numerical example of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system is given to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.